The present study aims to investigate the role of the golden ratio use in logo design on consumer perception in terms of brand management. To this end, in order to collect data, a research procedure including the questionnaire method using unaided recall tests and the web camera-based eye tracking technique was followed. Based on the logo types, the role of the ratios used in the research on consumers’ level of appreciation, recall rate, total viewing time and first glance second were identified. Eye tracking data obtained with the GazeRecorder program was transferred to SPSS and MATLAB package programs where it was classified and then analyzed. In the research, analytical findings for logo design process have been obtained. In the light of these findings, the results that will contribute to the scientific literature has been listed and suggestions have been developed for researchers and businesses that will engage in a similar field in the future. Considering the results, it has been found out that logo designs with a one-to-one ratio (1.00) differ significantly from other logos regarding preferences, recall, total viewing time and first glance second. The one-toone ratio has been found to be the most efficient logo ratio in this research. It has been found that the logos with the golden ratio (1.618) have a positive effect on the total viewing time. Besides, the short-term memorability level of the golden ratio has been found to be lower than the other ratios discussed in the study. The research has revealed that as one gets away from the one-to-one ratio, the level of appreciation decreases and the time to be noticed is delayed. It is anticipated that this study, which has brought the web camera-based eye tracking method to the Turkish literature, will contribute not only to the field of business and marketing, but also to all disciplines dealing with human-computer interaction.
The initial phase of the study involved an experiment utilizing the GazeRecorder software, a web camera-based eye tracking tool that employs neuroimaging techniques. The rationale behind using multiple data collection methods was to enhance the reliability of the results by cross-verifying the consistency among the methods. As suggested by various scholars (Cheng, 2005; Bogdan and Biklen, 2006; Boz, 2015), data should be gathered from diverse sources to bolster the validity and reliability of a study. Consequently, this study employed a triangulation approach in its data collection method, utilizing both the eye tracking technique and two surveys. This diversification aimed to increase the study’s validity, reliability, and generalizability.
The data collected for the study were analyzed using the GazeRecorder program. The heat map generated by the program was obtained through HTML and CSS programming languages, and the data were classified for analysis using SPSS and MATLAB package programs. The study used eye tracking and survey methods as data collection techniques. The data collected through these two different methods were evaluated using a diversification method. The eye tracking method yielded a heat map of the tracking areas, gaze frequency, total gaze duration, and first gaze duration data. This data was collected on the GazeRecorder eye tracking tool’s panel in a cloud environment and transferred to SPSS for storage in the iCloud Drive environment. Prior to the data collection stage, a pilot test was conducted to review and optimize the participants’ experiment process.
The data collection process using the Eye Tracking Method involved a calibration process. The GazeRecorder program tests various conditions before initiating data collection to ensure a successful experiment. These conditions include a clear view of the face for adjusting the sitting distance and position, appropriate room lighting, absence of strong light behind the participants, and no light reflection in the glasses. The software uses image processing to test these essential factors for healthy calibration and testing. If these conditions are not met, the gaze calibration stage does not commence, and the start button is deactivated. This algorithm continues throughout the calibration and experiment. If the basic conditions are not met during calibration or testing, a red warning visual is displayed on the screen. If the conditions are not met, the experiment automatically ends and is deemed unsuccessful. Data from unsuccessful experiments were excluded from the study and the analysis.
The first calibration of the research is carried out with a red target point on a gray background. The red dot moves by sliding according to the flow of the yellow arrow in the visual. During this process, participants follow the red dot with their eyes. The calibration is completed by scanning 17 different points of the screen and the gaps between them. The second calibration of the research is carried out with a red target point on a white background. The red dot moves by sliding from the center to the left edge, right edge, top, and bottom in a repetitive manner according to the flow of the yellow arrows in the visual. During this process, participants move their heads according to the movement of the red dot. Head movements are calibrated by scanning 5 different points of the screen and the gaps between them during the calibration process.
Participants were instructed to track the movement of the sliding red dots with their eyes. The second and third calibrations each scanned 5 points and were considerably quicker than the initial calibration. The rationale behind using three different colored backgrounds in gaze calibration was to calibrate the reflections in the eye, as it is possible to conduct studies where a dark-colored visual is shown after a light-colored visual. Depending on the characteristics of these visuals, screens of computers, tablets, or mobile phones emit varying degrees of light. For instance, outside the scope of this research, one could test a bright photo taken at noon after a night photo.
Twelve logos were designed for use in the surveys and experiments. These logos were created to test the Abstract-Natural and Complex-Simple dilemmas based on literature reviews. Logo categories were established based on these dilemmas, with three distinct logos designed for each category. Four different ratios were prepared for each logo: 1:1, 1:1.4, 1:1.1618, 1:1.8, as suggested by Pittard, Ewing, and Jevons (2007). The design process was carried out using the Adobe Illustrator program as part of the Adobe Illustrator Creative Cloud membership. All logos were drawn in a vector-based format, and a manual mouse was used during the design process.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
The study’s conclusion is divided into two main sections. The first section discusses the findings obtained through the surveys and experiments conducted, and their contributions to the existing body of knowledge. The second section presents recommendations and insights for businesses, practitioners, and researchers.
In today’s world, the importance of branding for businesses is escalating. Technological advancements, particularly improvements in logistics processes, the emergence of e-commerce platforms, and the globalization of payment systems, have intensified competition in many markets. Consequently, businesses have begun to place greater emphasis on branding. The status of businesses regarding brand registration was examined under section 2.8. Upon reviewing the data from the “Turkish Patent and Trademark Office” in Turkey and WIPO standards worldwide, it was observed that the number of brand registrations has doubled.
This research introduces the web camera-based eye tracking method to the Turkish literature. Prior to this study, no web camera-based eye tracking measurement was encountered in the Turkish field literature. This study will contribute not only to the field of business and marketing but also to all disciplines dealing with human-computer interaction.
The research provides a method for researchers and businesses to conduct studies at a low cost through web camera-based eye tracking. The experience gained from the research indicates that web camera-based technology is the future of the eye tracking method. The ability to share the test by creating a single link enables research to be conducted on a larger scale and globally. The fact that participants perform the test in their own natural environment is another factor that highlights the web camera-based eye tracking method. As technology advances, it is anticipated that the developing camera technology will contribute to this area in the future.
A test was conducted in the research to measure the calibration accuracy of the web camera-based eye tracking method. As a result of the test, it was determined that the calibration needs to be manually controlled. It was found that the gaze calibration of 82% of the participants, who were asked to focus on a certain point, was correct and that the place where the participants looked matched the part scanned in the heat map.
Logo design is not just the domain of graphic design; it is a subject directly related to brand management in terms of marketing. Logo designs serve as a bridge from the consumer’s mind to the brand. In the research, the ratios to be used in logo designs were determined, and the role of these ratios on consumers’ liking level, total gaze duration, and first gaze second was identified. When evaluated in terms of brand management and logo design, research on colors is particularly striking. However, there are very few studies on design ratios, which are as important a variable as colors. This research provides analytical data on the ratios used in logo designs.
In light of the data obtained from the eye tracking experiment conducted, it was found that the 1.0 ratio is the ratio that is examined for the longest time in terms of total gaze duration in logo design. The 1.0 ratio is followed by the 1.618 golden ratio. When evaluated based on the natural-artificial and simple-complex logo types examined in the brand and logo design literature, the dominance of the same ratios is striking. The aesthetic debates and research on