Attention can shift very quickly from one thing to the next, and therefore attention can be discussed as overt orientation i.e. selective action on an item by moving the eye to a point in that direction, and covert orientation being able to mentally shift focus without moving the eye. This eye movement can be an indication to observe attention. The purpose of this study was to identify attention in the reading process for high school students. This study used a quasiexperimental method with a posttest only one group design and involved 3 participants in grade 1 and grade 3 high school. The equipment used is a webcam with GazeRecorder software as an alternative to the eyetracker that has been used in the initial trial process. Descriptive analysis was used to obtain the attention profile of high school students by using video monitoring and correlational analysis to obtain data on the difference in power and the level of difficulty of the measuring instrument developed. The results of the study indicate that attention in reading can be identified effectively through eye tracking technology (gazerecorder).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study on participants was conducted using three methods: (a) eye movement observation through GazeRecorder software; (b) digital questionnaire; and © interview. The summary of the results is listed in Table 2, showing a significant comparison between the three participants. Participant 1, an 18-year-old female, is in the 3rd grade of high school. The participant got a total of 12 correct answers out of 15 questions. The reading comprehension test accompanied by observation through GazeRecorder software and interview was conducted from 11.00 to 11.33. The observation was divided into three parts for each reading. In the first reading, the participant spent 1 minute 3 seconds reading the text and 39 seconds answering the question. The participant read the sentence quickly, it was seen that the eyes skipped some words and continued to the next writing. The eyes flowed without stopping, when the paragraph shifted. The participant’s eyes looked at the middle of the reading line that he had read. The participant seemed to focus on the beginning and end of a line. In the second and third paragraphs, the participant focused on the top, at the beginning of the paragraph from the right and left ends with a duration of two seconds. The participant’s gaze passed the reading that was in the middle of each line. When reading and answering questions, the participant answered questions 1-2 quickly but when the participant read question number 3, which the question and answer were already long, the participant seemed focused and looked for answers between C & D with a long enough time (more than 1 second). GazeRecorder: Observing Attention in High School Students Taim, et al Using Eye Tracker https://doi.org/10.24912/ jmishumsen.v6i2.13558 579 Participant 2, a 16-year-old male, is in the 1st grade of high school. The participant got a total of 13 correct answers out of a total of 15 questions. The test was conducted from 14.00 to 14.51. The observation was divided into three parts for each reading. In the first reading, the participant spent 1 minute 46 seconds reading the text and 1 minute 55 seconds answering the question. The participant seemed relaxed in reading the text, the eye’s attention to the text lasted more than one second when looking at sentences with numbers (years). The participant was also seen directing his gaze to the place description and the name of the special forces explained in the reading, with a duration of more than 1 second per word. The participant has a stable reading tempo, he pays attention to the word information place for a long time (more than 1 second). The participant did a quick sweep of the words (evidenced by the many blue sensors passing on the eye tracker recording results). Participant 3, a 15-year-old male, is in the 1st grade of high school. The participant got a total of 10 correct answers out of a total of 15 questions. The test was conducted from 14.00 to 14.51. The observation was divided into three parts for each reading. In the first reading, the participant spent 1 minute 00 seconds reading the text and 1 minute 30 seconds answering the question. The participant seemed rushed, restless, and tried to read as quickly as possible. The eye’s attention to the text lasted more than one second when looking at sentences with complex and long words. It was seen that the participant’s gaze sometimes focused on the side of the reading for quite a long time in the middle of reading which made him have to repeat reading from the beginning of the sentence. The participant seemed confident in answering questions, although sometimes he stopped to remember something. The participant admitted that he liked historical readings related to biography. In the eye tracker recording results there are 4 zones that can be observed, the longer the participant looks at a point, the zone will become a ‘hot zone’ reddening and the faster the gaze shifts the zone will become ‘cold’ or also blue.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS This study aims to determine whether the GazeRecorder eye tracker tool can be used to observe attention when reading in high school students. The results of the study show that the GazeRecorder eye tracker tool can be used to observe attention when reading in high school students. The results of observation through eye movement recordings and reading comprehension test results show that there are differences in student test results that are detected by different eye movements. Thus, it can be said that the GazeRecorder eye tracker tool has the potential to be used in observing attention in the reading comprehension process in high school students. This study has shown that GazeRecorder is a relatively simple tool that can be used to detect individual attention when reading. This means that if an institution has limited resources to buy sophisticated equipment to detect attention, this tool can be used as an alternative solution. Based on this research, the researchers suggest that future research increase the number of participants in a wider range of education. Research can be conducted at each grade level to have an overview of the influence of attention at each level. In addition, in this study the researcher only used one measuring tool, namely a reading comprehension test questionnaire combined with an eye tracker. For future research, it is expected to develop other methods that can be combined with the eye tracker.